Understanding the complex links between adversity, physiology, and the trajectory of internalizing disorders in childhood: Testing a developmental cascades model

Sponsor: Brain and Behavior Research Foundation

Location(s): United States


Harsh and restrictive parenting are well-established contributors to the development of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) among children. However, few studies have explored whether interpersonal relationships that develop outside the family environment attenuate the risk for ODD that is associated with harsh parenting. This study will examine multireporter measures of teacher–child closeness and peer acceptance as moderators of the association between harsh parenting and children's ODD during kindergarten.