Primary HIV Prevention in Pregnant and Lactating Ugandan Women
This study aims to test the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention aimed at preventing the primary acquisition of HIV by uninfected pregnant and lactating women in Uganda, East Africa where HIV transmission is high. Women who acquire HIV during pregnancy or lactation are at higher risk of adverse health and pregnancy outcomes and their baby is at high risk of acquiring HIV and dying.
Keeping HIV-uninfected women uninfected during pregnancy and lactation is an important component of the global World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV but there has been no study to date to assess interventions that can effectively keep these women uninfected.
In this study, the investigators will test the hypotheses that:
1 Extended repeat HIV testing and enhanced counseling (ERHTEC) during late pregnancy (>36 weeks) and breastfeeding can increase and sustain risk reduction behaviors and prevent incident STI and HIV infections among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, and
2 Couple HIV testing and counseling (HTC) can further enhance this effect through improved couple communication and emotional and economic support from male partners.
The specific aims of the study are:
Aim 1: to assess the effect of an extended repeat HIV testing and enhanced counseling (ERHTEC) intervention on sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV acquisition in HIV-uninfected pregnant and lactating women enrolled individually
Aim 2: to assess the effect of ERHTEC on sexual risk behavior and the incidence of STI and HIV in uninfected pregnant and lactating women enrolled with their partner, and
Aim 3: to assess the costs and estimate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.
We will conduct a stratified randomized trial of 410 HIV-negative pregnant Ugandan women enrolled individually and 410 HIV-negative pregnant women enrolled with their male partners in Mulago Hospital, Kampala and St Joseph Hospital, Kitgum, Northern Uganda. In each site, 205 women enrolled individually and 205 couples will be randomized to be either retested and counseled for HIV in late pregnancy only (>36 weeks) as per the WHO/Ministry of Health (MOH) recommendation, or to receive ERHTEC throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding.