HIV and Lung Complications in the HAART Era: Focus on Obstructive Lung Disease(l))
Location(s): United States
Despite the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), lung diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in those with HIV infection. There have been no large-scale studies detailing pulmonary complications in the HAART era. Substantial gaps exist in our knowledge of the spectrum and pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders in this population, particularly in women and minorities whose numbers with HIV or AIDS have increased. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency Health Study (WIHS) are prospective, multi-center cohorts that follow approximately 5000 HIV+ subjects and HIV- controls. Although pulmonary disease has not been an area of focus, these established cohorts provide a unique opportunity to systematically study pulmonary complications of HIV infection.
Emphysema is of particular interest in the current HIV era because it is likely to increase as this population lives longer with chronic HIV. HIV-infected persons have an increased incidence of emphysema compared to those without HIV infection, and it has been hypothesized that this accelerated disease progression is the result of one or more latent infectious agents that amplify the pulmonary inflammation. Accelerated emphysema was described in HIV infection in a predominantly male population before HAART. The current prevalence and characteristics of HIV-associated emphysema, and the potential impact of gender, have not been rigorously defined.
HIV-infected patients have an increased incidence of emphysema compared to non-HIV-infected patients, and it has been hypothesized that this accelerated disease progression is the result of one or more latent infections that amplifies the pulmonary inflammatory response. We will examine the prevalence and progression of emphysema in subjects with and without HIV and determine risk factors for emphysema in this population.
Subjects will be 300 HIV+ subjects and 300 HIV- controls selected by random sampling stratified by age and smoking history. Subjects will be recruited from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California Los Angles (UCLA) MACS sites. The University of California San Francisco (UCSF) will serve as the recruiting center for the WIHS cohort.