South America

Map of South America

UCSF researchers in Brazil are working on drug development for Chagas disease and genetic susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis. Large clinical trial cohorts, many of them HIV related, have sites in South America, such as International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT), International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IMPAACT), and the Tuberculosis Trial Consortium. The Prevention and Public Health Group (PPHG) (formerly the Institute for Global Health) works with PEPFAR on HIV/AIDS epidemiology, prevention, and treatment program implementation in Guyana.

Policy research based at UCSF engages with the cost of essential medications and tobacco control in South America.

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Active Projects: 45

Project
Investigator All Locations Start date End date
Achieving Global Malaria Eradication through Accelerated Regional Elimination Richard G. Feachem, DSc, PhD Sao Tome and Principe, Algeria, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Cape Verde, Tajikistan, China, North Korea, South Korea, Bhutan, Iran, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
ACTG, AIDS Clinical Trial Research Group Diane V. Havlir, MD Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, China, India, Thailand, Brazil, Peru, Haiti
ACTG: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Francesca T. Aweeka, PharmD Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Botswana, South Africa, China, Peru
AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) Lawrence D. Kaplan, MD Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, India, Brazil, Australia
Biological implications of breast cancer protective variants in Latin American women with high Indigenous American ancestry Laura Fejerman, PhD Peru
Blood safety standards and lab capacity in low & mid income countries Elizabeth Donegan, MD Sierra Leone, Indonesia, Philippines, Armenia, Moldova, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Dominica, Haiti
Child Family Health International (CFHI) Jessica Evert, MD Uganda, Tanzania, South Africa, Ghana, India, Philippines, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador
Clinical and biological characterization of Male Breast Cancer: an international EORTC, BIG, TBCRC and NABCG intergroup study- TBCRC 029 Hope Rugo, MD Egypt, Greece, Mexico, Peru
Developing an breast FNA biopsy service in Trujillo Peru Ronald Balassanian, MD Peru
Developing pain management curricula Ramana Naidu, MD Honduras, Brazil
Diabetes and Tuberculosis in Brazilian slum settings Jayant Rajan, MD Brazil
Disrupting Vector-Borne Disease Transmission in Complex Urban Environments Caryn L. Bern, MD, MPH Peru
ENROLL-HD -A Prospective Registry Study in a Global Huntington's Disease Cohort Michael D. Geschwind, MD, PhD Argentina, Chile, Australia
Experiences of women denied legal abortions Felicia C. Lester, MD, MPH Tunisia, South Africa, Bangladesh, Nepal, Colombia
Feeding practices, nutrition, & tooth decay among young children in low-resource settings Benjamin W. Chaffee, DDS, MPH, PhD Brazil
Global Brain Health Institute Victor G. Valcour, MD, PhD South Africa, Viet Nam, Turkey, Greece, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Republic
HIV Prevention and Care for Peruvian MSM and Transgender Women Susan M. Kegeles, PhD Peru
Improving Health Outcomes for Women Living with HIV Sheri A. Lippman, PhD, MPH Brazil
Infectious Diseases Training program in Bolivia: South-South Training with Peru Caryn L. Bern, MD, MPH Bolivia
Institute for Global Orthopedics and Traumatology (IGOT) Richard Coughlin, MD Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Seychelles, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Egypt, Morocco, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, China, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand, Philippines, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Brazil
International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trial Group Master Member Agreement John A. Shepherd, PhD Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, China, India, Thailand, Argentina, Brazil, Bahamas
International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT) Ann V. Schwartz, PhD, MPH South Africa, Mali, Brazil, Peru
International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT): START Steven G. Deeks, MD South Africa, Mali, Brazil, Peru
International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT): START Richard W. Price, MD Uganda, Morocco, South Africa, Mali, Nigeria, China, Japan, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Israel, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, Australia
International Training in Transfusion Medicine Mike Busch, MD, PhD South Africa, China, Brazil
LOC-IMPAACT Leadership Group Theodore D. Ruel, MD Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, China, India, Thailand, Argentina, Brazil
Master Agreement: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) - International Sites Edward L. Murphy, MD, MPH South Africa, China, Brazil
Medical education and serving remote populations Yousef Turshani, MD Zimbabwe, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Northern Mariana Islands
Naturally acquired immunity to norovirus in a newborn cohort in Peru Caryn L. Bern, MD, MPH Peru
NICHD International & Domestic Pediatric & Maternal HIV Studies Coordinating Center Theodore D. Ruel, MD Kenya, Tanzania, Thailand, Argentina, Brazil
Oral Health is Global Health John S. Greenspan, BDS, PhD Nepal, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Philippines, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Peru, Haiti, Jamaica, Micronesia, Vanuatu
Orthopedic Surgery and Anesthesia access in underserved areas John Feiner, MD Mexico, Nicaragua, Bolivia, Ecuador, Dominican Republic
Pegylated Interferon Lambda w/wo Daclatasvir, Compared to Pegylated Interferon Alfa, Plus Ribavirin in Subjects With Hepatitis C Genotype 2 and 3 Mandana Khalili, MD South Korea, Japan, India, Singapore, Belgium, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, United Kingdom, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Canada, Australia, New Zealand
Population-based sampling methods in HIV epidemiology Henry F. Raymond, DrPH, MPH Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda, Zambia, South Africa, Ghana, China, Brazil
Quality measures for pediatric resuscitation Rajesh Daftary, MD, MPH Lesotho, Ecuador
Reducing dietary risks associated with noncommunicable disease Lynn Silver, MD, MPH Brazil
Strategic Information Technical Assistance Consortium George W. Rutherford, MD Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, India, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Thailand, Ukraine, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Guyana, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Papua New Guinea
TO#2 Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) - International Sites Edward L. Murphy, MD, MPH South Africa, China, Brazil
Transfusion medicine and Blood safety: Policy, Diagnostics and Standards development Mike Busch, MD, PhD South Africa, Brazil
Travel Medicine in Global Health Mary E. Wilson, MD Brazil, Haiti
Tuberculosis Trial Consortium Payam Nahid, MD, MPH Kenya, Uganda, South Africa, China, Viet Nam, Brazil, Peru
UCSF-GIVI Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Paul A. Volberding, MD Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Peru, United States
UN Special Envoy for Tuberculosis: Strategic Priorities Eric Goosby, MD Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Central African Republic, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Lesotho, South Africa, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, China, North Korea, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Myanmar, Thailand, Philippines, Russia, Brazil, Papua New Guinea
Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus: Placental Histopathology and Fetal Outcomes Stephanie L. Valderramos, MD, PhD Brazil
Viral metagenomics to discover viruses Eric L. Delwart, PhD Kenya, Uganda, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Ghana, China, India, Nepal, Brazil

Archived Projects: 122

Project
Investigator All Locations Start date End date
2.1 Project Title ACTG: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Francesca T. Aweeka, PharmD Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, India, Thailand, Brazil, Peru
A Phase 2, Open-Label Study of Daclatasvir (BMS-790052) and TMC435 in Combination With or Without Ribavirin (RBV) For Treatment-Naive Subjects or Null Responders to Prior Peginterferon Alfa (PegIFN)/RBV Therapy with Genotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C Anne F. Luetkemeyer, MD France, Germany, Hungary, Spain, Argentina
A Phase III Clinical Trial to Study the Tolerability and Immunogenicity of V503, a Multivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccine, in 16- to 26- Year-Old Men and 16- to 26- Year-Old Women Joel Palefsky, MD South Africa, Malaysia, Thailand, Israel, Turkey, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Canada
Abortion Turnaway Project Diana G. Foster, PhD South Africa, Cambodia, Colombia
Advancing Academic Understanding of the Private Sector, and Strengthening the Social Franchising Community of Practice Dominic D. Montagu, DrPH Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), Sudan, South Africa, Benin, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, China, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Yemen, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, Papua New Guinea
AIDS Malignancies Consortium Lawrence D. Kaplan, MD Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, South Africa, India, Brazil, Australia
AIDS Policy Research Center Stephen F. Morin, PhD Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kazakhstan, China, Japan, India, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Philippines, Croatia, South America, Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Assess Clonidine and Aspirin in Noncardiac Surgery Patients at Risk of Perioperative Cardiovascular Event Rachel E. McKay, MD South Africa, China, India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Canada, Australia
Atlanta HQ: UCSF Technical Assistance to Support PEPFAR George W. Rutherford, MD Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, Namibia, South Africa, Nigeria, Viet Nam, Guyana, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Haiti
Bipolar Endophenotypes in Population Isolates Victor I. Reus, MD Costa Rica, Colombia
BMS-790052 with Peginterferon Alfa-2a and Ribavirin in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Infected Subjects Who are Null or Partial Responders to Peginterferon Alfa plus Mandana Khalili, MD Mexico, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Australia
Building Community Partnerships: Case Studies at Three HPTN Sites Stephen F. Morin, PhD Zimbabwe, Thailand, Peru
CAPS/Fogarty Visiting Scientists and In-Country Research Training Activities George W. Rutherford, MD Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Kazakhstan, China, Japan, India, Iran, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Philippines, Georgia, Jordan, Croatia, Czech Republic, Russia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada
Center for AIDS Prevention Studies Stephen F. Morin, PhD Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, China, India, Nepal, Thailand, Philippines, Brazil
Center for AIDS Prevention Studies Stephen F. Morin, PhD Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, China, India, Iran, Nepal, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Myanmar, Thailand, Argentina, Peru
Center for International AIDS Support, Training, and Evaluation (CIASTE) / University Technical Assistance Project in Support of the Global AIDS Program (GAP) George W. Rutherford, MD Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda, Egypt, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Ghana, China, India, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Guatemala, Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago
CFAR International Scientist Training Awards / International AIDS Training Program Paul A. Volberding, MD Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast, India, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Brazil, Peru
Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Expansion Study [III] David V. Glidden, PhD South Africa, Thailand, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Expansion Study [II] David V. Glidden, PhD South Africa, Thailand, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Expansion Study [I] David V. Glidden, PhD South Africa, Thailand, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Peruvian Men Kimberly A. Page, PhD, MPH Peru
Classification in the Public Provision of Care: Trans Health in North and South America Janet K. Shim, PhD Peru
Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Treat-to-Target and Risk-Based Blood Pressure Control Guidelines Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, MD, PhD Argentina, Chile
Comparative Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in the Pacific Rim Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, MD, PhD China, Mexico, Argentina, Chile
Computerized Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia in Brazil Sophia Vinogradov, MD Brazil
Congenital Syphilis Elimination Cost-Effectiveness Analysis James G. Kahn, MD, MPH Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Sudan, Tunisia, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Philippines, Jordan, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, United Kingdom, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Antigua and Barbuda, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Fiji, Kiribati, Papua New Guinea
Consortium of Universities of Global Health (CUGH) Haile T. Debas, MD Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Egypt, Botswana, Namibia, Ghana, Mali, China, India, Pakistan, Viet Nam, Thailand, Israel, Czech Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago
Consortium of Universities of Global Health (CUGH) - Leading the Way Haile T. Debas, MD Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Egypt, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Ghana, Mali, China, India, Pakistan, Viet Nam, Thailand, Israel, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago
DAIDS A5298 Study: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Trial of the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine to Prevent Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in HIV-Infected Men Anne F. Luetkemeyer, MD Brazil, Puerto Rico
Defining critical events in early HIV infection-effects of alcohol and early ART J. Michael McCune, MD, PhD Peru
Development of a Multilevel HIV Prevention for Latin American Men Susan M. Kegeles, PhD Peru
Digital Disease Detection and Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Pathogens in Peru Simon D. Pollett, MBBS Peru
Digital Disease Detection and Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Pathogens in Peru Simon D. Pollett, MBBS Peru
Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship (CRF) Program for Medical Students Joel Palefsky, MD Kenya, Tanzania, India, Peru
Epigenetic Profiling of Multiple Cell and Tissue Types in Sjögren's Syndrome Lindsey A. Criswell, MD, MPH China, Japan, India, Denmark, United Kingdom, Argentina
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Policies in Low and Middle Income Countries Neal L. Benowitz, MD India, Malaysia, Thailand, Uruguay
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Policies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Neal L. Benowitz, MD India, Malaysia, Thailand, Uruguay
Fogarty International AIDS Training Paul A. Volberding, MD Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast, India, Brazil, Peru
Forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity of obese, arsenic-exposed individuals in northern Chile: A secondary data-analysis Anthony Nardone, MS Chile
Genetics of Brazilian Populations Mark Seielstad, PhD Brazil
Genome wide association study of breast cancer subtype and survival in Latinas Laura Fejerman, PhD Argentina, United States
Global Health Sciences Clinical Scholars Program Immersion Experience Christopher C. Stewart, MD Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, North Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Philippines, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian Territory, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, Albania, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Antigua and Barbuda, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, American Samoa, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study James Huang, MD South Africa, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela
HIV Vaccine Trials Network - Laboratory Personnel Support Teri Liegler, PhD Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, China, Peru
HPV testing of samples from the AIDS Malignancy Consortium Joel Palefsky, MD Kenya, Uganda, India, Brazil
I-TECH UCSF International AETC E. Michael Reyes, MD, MPH Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Ivory Coast, China, India, Guyana, Bahamas, Barbados, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago
ICOHRTA - Brazil Scientists Program George W. Rutherford, MD Brazil
ICOHRTA Visiting Scientists Program George W. Rutherford, MD Brazil
Improving Data on Private Healthcare Use and Provision Dominic D. Montagu, DrPH Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), Sudan, South Africa, Benin, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, China, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Yemen, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, Papua New Guinea
Innovative Abortion Research in Colombia: The Qualitative Global Turnaway Study and mHealth Caitlin E. Gerdts, PhD, MHS Colombia
INSITE: Intramedullary Nail versus Sliding Hip Screw Inter-Trochanteric Evaluation Saam Morshed, MD, MPH, PhD South Africa, China, Colombia
International AIDS Education and Training Center E. Michael Reyes, MD, MPH Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Kyrgyzstan, China, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Philippines, Georgia, Iraq, Lebanon, Yemen, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Australia
International CAPS/Fogarty Visiting Scientists George W. Rutherford, MD Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast, India, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Brazil, Peru
International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IMPAACT) John A. Shepherd, PhD Argentina, Brazil
International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group Leadership Award John A. Shepherd, PhD Argentina, Brazil
International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT) Ann V. Schwartz, PhD, MPH South Africa, India, Thailand, Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Brazil, Peru, Australia
International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT) Steven G. Deeks, MD Tanzania, Zambia, Morocco, South Africa, Mali, Thailand, Greece, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru
International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials/ ICR INSIGHT Steven G. Deeks, MD South Africa, Mali, Brazil, Peru
International Research Registry Network for Sjögren Syndrome Caroline Shiboski, DDS, MPH, PhD China, Japan, India, Denmark, United Kingdom, Argentina
International Research Registry Network for Sjogren's Syndrome Caroline Shiboski, DDS, MPH, PhD China, Japan, India, Denmark, United Kingdom, Argentina
International Traineeships in AIDS Prevention Studies George W. Rutherford, MD Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Central America, South America, Caribbean
International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) E. Michael Reyes, MD, MPH Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Ivory Coast, China, India, Viet Nam, Guyana, Bahamas, Barbados, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago
Interventions for Improving Retention in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Programs (PO 200988865) George W. Rutherford, MD Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Philippines, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Haiti, Jamaica
Kinetoplastid Drug Development: Strengthening the Preclinical Pipeline Brazil
Lead Identification to Clinical Candidate Selection: Drugs for Chagas' Disease Adam R. Renslo, PhD Brazil
Lead Identification to Clinical Candidate Selection: Drugs for Chagas' Disease Brazil
LOC-IMPAACT Leadership Group Francesca T. Aweeka, PharmD Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, China, India, Thailand, Brazil
Lutheran MC US-Caribbean HIV/AIDS Twinning Initiative Ronald H. Goldschmidt, MD Guyana, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago
Master Agreement: International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials/ICR INSIGHT Steven G. Deeks, MD Uganda, South Africa, Mali, Nigeria, China, Malaysia, Thailand, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay
Master Member Agreement: Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium Hope Rugo, MD Egypt, Greece, Mexico, Peru
Maternal Nutrition Education and Early Childhood Caries: A Randomized Field Study Benjamin W. Chaffee, DDS, MPH, PhD Brazil
Metabiota - Viral Surveillance for the PREDICT Program 20150410 Charles Y. Chiu, MD, PhD Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, China, Bangladesh, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Mexico, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Microbicide Pregnancy Registry--Microbicide Trials Network Juan E. Vargas, MD Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, India, Thailand, Peru
Microbicide Pregnancy Registry--Microbicide Trials Network Juan E. Vargas, MD Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, India, Thailand, Peru, Puerto Rico
Microbicide Pregnancy Registry-Microbicide Trials Network Juan E. Vargas, MD Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, India, Peru
NICHD International and Domestic Pediatric and Maternal HIV Studies Coordinating Center Diane W. Wara, MD Argentina, Brazil
NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial Susan M. Kegeles, PhD Peru, United States
NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial Susan M. Kegeles, PhD Peru
NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial Susan M. Kegeles, PhD Peru
Nonlinear Mixed Effects Modeling of Rifapentine in Children Rada Savic, PhD Kenya, South Africa, China, Viet Nam, Peru, United States
Office of the UN Special Envoy for Tuberculosis Eric Goosby, MD Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, Hong Kong S.A.R., China, North Korea, South Korea, Macao S.A.R., China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Philippines, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestinian Territory, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jersey, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Caribbean, Anguilla, Turks and Caicos Islands, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, United States, U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Australia, Cook Islands, Guam, French Polynesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
Pathogen Discovery in PREDICT Human and Wildlife samples to Detect and Identify Viruses Present, Both Known and Novel Charles Y. Chiu, MD, PhD China, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia
Population-based HIV Impact Assessments in Resource-Constrained Settings under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) George W. Rutherford, MD Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, India, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Thailand, Ukraine, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Papua New Guinea
Predictors of Cardiomyopathy Progression in a Cohort of Bolivian Patients with Chagas Disease Caryn L. Bern, MD, MPH Bolivia
Prevention Umbrella for MSM in the Americas Sheri A. Lippman, PhD, MPH Peru
Prevention Umbrella for MSM in the Americas E. Michael Reyes, MD, MPH Peru
Prevention Umbrella for MSM in the Americas Eric Vittinghoff, PhD Peru
Prevention Umbrella for MSM in the Americas Henry Chambers, MD Brazil, Peru
Prevention Umbrella for MSM in the Americas Henry Chambers, MD Brazil, Peru
Prices and Affordability of Essential Medicines across Pacific Latin America during Economic Crisis Leslie Wilson, PhD, MS Argentina, Ecuador
Real-Time Unbiased Pathogen Detection in Febrile Illnesses by Nanopore Sequencing Charles Y. Chiu, MD, PhD Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Brazil
Replication, Pathogenesis and Evolution of RNA Viruses, Including Dengue Raul Andino-Pavlovsky, PhD Argentina
Research Training in International Transfusion Safety Edward L. Murphy, MD, MPH South Africa, France, Honduras, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil
Retrovirus Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) - International Sites Edward L. Murphy, MD, MPH South Africa, China, Brazil
Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II REDS-II International Component - Blood Center Edward L. Murphy, MD, MPH South Africa, China, Brazil
Role of the Informal Sector in Mixed Health Services Project Dominic D. Montagu, DrPH Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), Sudan, South Africa, Benin, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, China, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Yemen, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, Papua New Guinea
Samples from Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group Lea T. Grinberg, MD, PhD Brazil
San Francisco National Clinical Trial Center, ESPIRIT Steven G. Deeks, MD Morocco, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Israel, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia
STI Screening as a Combined HIV Prevention Platform for MSM in Peru James W. Dilley, MD Peru
Student and Postdoctoral Collaborations Travel Award Brazil
Study of BMS-790052 plus Peg-Interferon alfa 2a and Ribavirin in Previously Untreated HCV Patients Coinfected with HIV and HCV Anne F. Luetkemeyer, MD France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Canada, Australia
Systematic reviews to support the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Consolidated Guidelines - 2014/HTM/HIV/007 George W. Rutherford, MD Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Western Africa, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Philippines, Armenia, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Slovenia, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Turks and Caicos Islands, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Fiji, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
T001: Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG): Pharmacology Laboratory Francesca T. Aweeka, PharmD Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, India, Thailand, Brazil, Peru, Haiti, Puerto Rico, United States
The cardiovascular impact of household air pollution in semi-urban and rural communities in Puno, Peru Melissa Burroughs Pena, MD, MS Peru, Cuba
The distribution and determinants of Non-communicable Diseases in informal settlements (slums) in Northeastern Brazil Alon Unger, MD Brazil
The Impact of Anogenital Human Papillomavirus in the Transmission of HIV in Urban Brazil: Phase II Study Joel Palefsky, MD Brazil
The Role of Human Rights-Based Approaches in Reducing Maternal Mortality in Brazil and Uganda Katie Lesyna, MS Uganda, Brazil
The Transnational Cohort: Global HIV Epidemiology And Prevention Research For Transwomen. Glenn-Milo Santos, PhD, MPH Namibia, China, Brazil
TO#1: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) - International Sites Edward L. Murphy, MD, MPH South Africa, China, Brazil
Tobacco Control and Research and Training in South America Eliseo J. Perez-Stable, MD Argentina
Tobacco Use Among Argentinean Youth: A Cohort Study Eliseo J. Perez-Stable, MD Argentina
Turnaway Study Diana G. Foster, PhD South Africa, India, Nepal, Cambodia, Colombia
UAB-UCSF Creative and Novel Ideas in HIV Research Paul A. Volberding, MD Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Ivory Coast, India, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Brazil, Peru
UCSF-GIVI Center for AIDS Research (old) Paul A. Volberding, MD Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Peru
UCSF-Gladstone Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Paul A. Volberding, MD Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Peru
University Consortium for Global Health Haile T. Debas, MD Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Egypt, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Ghana, Mali, China, India, Pakistan, Viet Nam, Thailand, Israel, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago
University of California Global Health Institute Program for Fellows and Scholars Craig Cohen, MD, MPH Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, China, Bangladesh, India, Ukraine, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Brazil, Chile, Peru
University of California Global Health Institute Women's Health and Empowerment Center of Expertise Post-Doctoral Fellowship Program Craig Cohen, MD, MPH Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Philippines, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian Territory, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, Albania, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Antigua and Barbuda, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, American Samoa, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
University of Guyana-Vanderbilt-UCSF MPH program for Guyana George W. Rutherford, MD Guyana
VIPS: Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke Heather J. Fullerton, MD China, Malaysia, Argentina, Chile, Australia
Viral Discovery in Human and Animal Samples Charles Y. Chiu, MD, PhD Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, China, Bangladesh, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Mexico, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, United States
WHO Adolescent HTC Review Update (PO# 200660799) George W. Rutherford, MD Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Kinshasa), Congo (Brazzaville), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Western Africa, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, Hong Kong S.A.R., China, North Korea, Japan, Macao S.A.R., China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Brunei, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Philippines, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestinian Territory, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jersey, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Anguilla, Turks and Caicos Islands, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Australia, Cook Islands, Guam, French Polynesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu